With the Jubilee bank holiday weekend fast approaching, we are, once again, reminded of our collective ‘freedom’. Whatever you have planned, whether that is a street party, a BBQ (fingers crossed on the weather), or escaping the UK altogether, the shadow of covid means that we still feel grateful that these events are possible. And wherever, and however, you are celebrating may we recommend our Jubilee Commonwealth box for a tour of twelve different regions of the Commonwealth, our milk and dark Jubilee four bar box sets or our ‘make your own’ lollipop sets?
With this freedom in mind and following the success of our chocolate tasting evenings earlier in the year, we have lots of exciting in-person events planned throughout the summer. Chatting with people who share our enthusiasm for speciality products is really rewarding. It’s equally rewarding to bring together like-minded craft chocolate fans. As many of you know, one of our aims is to create a community of chocolate lovers, and hosting these events makes this aim a reality.
We’ve been long-term fans of ALSO Festival (partly due to their long tradition of wild swimming!): An incredible weekend of music, comedy, food, and, in their own words, ‘ideas’. Even though they successfully created a hybrid festival last year (hosting both virtual and in person events), we were thrilled that we can get out our tents and join the crowds from the 8th-10th of July.
And, for those of you who are fans of our resident whisky expert Rachel McCormack, she will also be exploring Scotland’s best whiskies. Appealing to the avid foodies, there’s countless brilliant events, including a sake tasting masterclass, a food illustration class, a foraging walk, a talk simply titled ‘tomatoes’, and many, many more – and that’s just the food side!
ALSO have been kind enough to give our customers an extra discount on ticket prices; use the exclusive code RUNWILD22 for 15% off their exciting events! Please secure your tickets HERE.
Next, we are back to 13 Charterhouse Square for some very special ‘maker-focused’ evenings. We take a lot of pride in our family of craft chocolate makers and, since many of them are international, it is a real pleasure to meet them. With this thought in mind, we thought it would be fantastic if you could also meet the world’s best chocolate makers, including Pedro Martins Araújo, the founder of Vinte Vinte.
We are in the final stages of launching Vinte Vinte, and to celebrate this partnership, we thought we’d host a very special tasting with Pedro himself; or, more accurately, a tasting party! This will involve tasting his incredible bars, understanding more about his craft chocolate journey, and raising a toast to the Vinte Vinte brand (a range of Taylor’s white, tawny and ruby ports will be provided). A very limited number of tickets can be purchased HERE and below.
We are keen to host more parties with our makers, particularly as many of you have long-established relationships with our brands. Since one of our most beloved makers, Chocolarder, are turning 10 this year, we thought another party was in order. Join us, alongside Chocolarder’s founder Mike Longman, on the 8th September to celebrate their fantastic achievements while tasting the results of a decade’s worth of hard work. And we’ve more maker specific events planned; see HERE for more details about the whole range.
Please see below to secure your tickets for these brilliant in person events. Tasting events at our 13 Charterhouse Square space are intimate evenings, and therefore we only have a limited amount of tickets; we’d recommend buying now to avoid disappointment.
Finally, we hope you have a glorious bank holiday weekend and a well-deserved rest. We look forward to meeting more of you this summer and these events.
Side note: for the eagle-eyed amongst you, you may wonder why the 2nd of June has been picked when the Queen’s reign started on the 6th February 1952; the answer seems to be that her coronation was on the 2nd June, but 1953.
Queen Elizabeth II has had an extraordinary 70 years not just as Queen of the United Kingdom, but also as Head of the Commonwealth. Whereas being Queen of the United Kingdom is a hereditary position (i.e. you are born to rule), Queen Elizabeth’s role as Head of the Commonwealth is ‘selected’ (and the next Head has also been selected, and yes it is indeed Prince Charles).
As well as covering all the continents where cacao is grown, the Commonwealth comprises 30% of the world’s population. The Commonwealth is also often misunderstood. Yes it does have its origins in the British Empire. But some of its newer members weren’t in the British Empire (e.g. Mozambique and Rwanda). And it spans wider than the Caribbean, Africa and Asia; it does include Canada (though not that other North American ex-colony; the USA) and it also includes Belize and Guyana in South America.
More importantly, its not about imperial nostalgia. As Queen Elizabeth II noted when she became head of the Commonwealth in 1952: “The Commonwealth bears no resemblance to the empires of the past. It is an entirely new conception built on the highest qualities of the spirit of man: friendship, loyalty, and the desire for freedom and peace”.
And we’ve also built two boxes priced at £24.95 from craft chocolate makers representing England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Each contains four bars, one box is dark only and the other milk. Please see below for all of these wonderful boxes.
Now that we are (fingers crossed) turning the corner on covid, it seems timely to take a step back and think about the way diseases impact our history and culture.
Most wine aficionados are aware that in the 19th century European wine was almost destroyed by phylloxera. And anyone partial to bananas is aware that disease destroyed our favourite banana of the 1950s and 1960s (the Gran Michel) and the same may well occur with today’s favourite banana; the Cavendish.
But few people are aware that chocolate too has suffered from diseases as disastrous as phylloxera with gruesome names like ‘swollen shoots’, ‘vascular streak dieback’, ‘witches’ broom’ and ‘frosty pod rot’. And as cacao spread around the world it’s also been afflicted by pests like cocoa tree mirids in Africa (Salhbergella singularis and Distantiella theobroma) or cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella) in Southeast Asia. Indeed chocolate may well have been the first crop targeted by bioterrorism back in the 1990s.
And Europe’s insatiable desire for drinking chocolate in the 17th and 18th centuries, combined with disease, led to cocoa cultivation shifting from Mexico, Honduras and Belize to Venezuela, Ecuador and the Caribbean. Disease, and the near extermination of the indigenous Mayans, Aztecs and other peoples, also lead to the abuses and horrors of the Atlantic slave trade and use of slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean for cacao cultivation.
Ironically the (partial) conquest of other diseases, in particular malaria, also explains how cocoa spread to Africa, and again became entwined with slavery.
Today chocolate still struggles with ongoing issues of labour abuses, including slavery. And chocolate confectionery, via excessive sugar, is leading to a host of disastrous 21st diseases for young and old alike. The obesity epidemic, soaring rates of diabetes, heart diseases and many other ‘modern’ diseases can directly be attributed to chocolate confectionery products that are over 50% sugar.
At the same time, it’s not all a story of doom, gloom and disaster. Chocolate can also show some glimmers of hope. Learning to savour craft chocolate provides one means to avoid sugar related diseases. And the diversity of cocoa varietals treasured by craft chocolate provides one of the best defences to cocoa’s next phylloxera.
Read on for more, and see below for some bars that track the way disease has driven chocolate’s journey around the world.
Disease, Slavery, and the Emergence of Drinking Chocolate in Europe
It took Europeans over a century to realise the delights of drinking chocolate from when Cortez and the conquistadors first witnessed Montezuma’s drinking-chocolate-fuelled exploits with his wives as they ransacked Mexico from 1519 (note: Columbus came across chocolate a decade earlier, but thought it was primarily a unit of currency).
By the time appreciation for chocolate had taken hold (i.e. the mid to late 1600s), many of the locations in Mesoamerica (Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, etc.) where cocoa had been drunk and cultivated had seen jaw dropping population declines. Smallpox and a host of other European diseases ravaged Mesoamerica; in some cases wiping out 60% plus of the population in the decades following Columbus (Guatemala shrank from over 2 million people to under 500,000 in 30 years, El Salvador from 500,000 to under 70,000 in the same time period).
As a consequence, the descendants of the conquistadors turned to South America, in particular Ecuador, Brazil and Venezuela, for their cocoa needs. The descendants of the conquistadors needed far more cacao. So they developed a radically different approach, a plantation like system known as the ‘encomienda’, to cultivate cacao in Brazil and Venezuela. And the bedrock to the encomienda system was slavery of not just the few remaining indigenous peoples but also slaves from the Atlantic slave trade.
Ironically, what ended the encomienda system (including its use of slavery) in Venezuela was disease. This time the disease was one that impacted the cacao tree, called at the time ‘alhorra’ and now thought to have been either ‘ceratocystis eilt’ or ‘black pod rot’. Either way the disease was recorded by contemporaries to leave cacao groves “without a single fruit-bearing plant”. And as a consequence, new pastures and lands were sought.
Note: Mexico still produces some amazing chocolates, see Cacao Prieto and Mucho; and amazing cocoa is grown there (see here for some bars from Original Beans, Bonnat, Ritual, Krak and a dozen more makers). And, see below, it has an encouraging diversity of cocoa varieties which provides one means to fight these diseases. As do Brazil and Venezuela, again, see below for more bars from Franchesci, Åkesson’s etc.
Cacao Diseases and the Dissemination of Cocoa to the Caribbean, Asia and Africa
Faced with these cacao blights and diseases in South America and the increasing popularity of drinking chocolate, colonial powers, especially Spain, the UK, and the Netherlands, successfully transplanted cacao trees throughout the Caribbean and Asia, and then Africa.
Although there are records of cacao being grown in Trinidad as early as the 1525, it wasn’t until the late 1670s that cacao trees, brought over from Venezuela, were cultivated as a commercial crop. As in Venezuela, Trinidad also suffered from various cacao blights and diseases until new cacao varietals were cross bred and cacao farming flourished. In honour of this achievement Trinidad lent its name to a family of these disease resistant beans, ‘Trinitario’. Cacao was also cultivated on other nearby islands, including Tobago, Grenada and Jamaica. And by the 1820s, the Caribbean (and in particular Trinidad and Tobago) was the third largest exporter of cacao; helped ironically by a series of other blights and diseases that damaged cacao cultivation in Brazil, Venezuela and Ecuador, before Trinidad’s cacao was again devastated in the 1920s.
At the same time as cacao was introduced to Trinidad, the Spanish also introduced chocolate to the Philippines. And soon after the Dutch, in an effort to wrest control over the cacao trade, also introduced cacao to some of their Indonesian colonies (most notably Java and Sulawesi).
Cacao cultivation in Africa really took off in the second half of the 19th century. Initially cacao was cultivated on the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, which by the late 1870s were accounting for over 20% of global cacao crops, and over 50% of Cadbury’s cacao needs. Sadly this cultivation was again based off slavery (for more see here).
What drove cacao to these African countries was again partly the appearance of devastating cacao diseases. Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, Costa Rica and the other South American cacao growing powerhouses all suffered from a series of blights and diseases, going by dramatic names including frosty pod and witches’ broom.
Disease, or rather the (partial) conquest of one endemic African disease, also made cacao cultivation possible. Until the late 19th century the white colonial powers had been unable to colonise more than the coast of Africa as their armies and administrators had no resistance to malaria (during the 17th and 18th centuries it is estimated that over 60% of Europeans visiting the hinterlands of Africa died within a year). However, the discovery of quinine made the colonisation of Africa possible and so in the late 19th century various ‘white nations’ conquered Ghana (Great Britain), Cameroon (Germany), Cote D’Ivoire (France), etc.
Bioterrorism in 1990s Brazil
In the 1990s cacao farmers in Brazil were facing a calamity so severe that they were hanging themselves and drinking rat poison to kill themselves. Yet a decade earlier Brazil was the world’s third largest grower of cacao, and it made farmers rich (although the plight of the workers was wretched). But in the early 1990s, Moniliophthora perniciosa (aka witches’ broom) was discovered in Bahia, Brazil.
Witches’ broom isn’t native to Bahia, Brazil. Like cacao itself it originated in the Amazonian rainforest. But in the Amazon, it cannot quickly spread as wild cacao trees are well separated from one another. But when witches’ broom reaches dense plantations of cocoa trees, the impact is disastrous; Trinidad and Venezuela lost 80% plus of their cacao trees in outbreaks from the 1920s to the 1940s (Venezuelan cacao then also was hammered by frosty pod and ceratocystis to add to its problems).
From the first instances of witches’ broom in Bahia in the 1990s, suspicions were raised of a deliberate infestation. The first trees to be impacted in many estates were in the middle, not the outskirts, of plantations; and as an eyewitness reported: “I found two cocoa trees with dry witches’ broom tied onto them in the middle of their trunks” (José Roberto Benjamin, a farm owner in Camacan, quoted in The Knot).
And then in 2006 an even more extraordinary claim was published. Luiz Franco Timoteo claimed that he, and other left wing activists, in an effort to draw attention to the dire conditions of the cacao workers in Bahia, deliberately introduced witches’ broom, with the help of workers from CEPLAC; the Brazilian equivalent of DEFRA (UK) or the FDA (US), as CEPLAC “could go anywhere” (which explains how the disease spread in such an extraordinary way).
CEPLAC vigorously contests these assertions. And it clearly did make extraordinary efforts to destroy the disease; including fumigating cacao farms with Agent Orange. And other conspiracy theories have also been circulated (including the idea that Ghana or the Cote D’Ivoire indulged in agro-warfare).
The origin of witches’ broom in Bahia is still unsolved. But the dangers of bioterrorism, and threats posed by cacao diseases to mass, monoculture agricultural approaches to cacao, is clear.
Why does this matter? Chocolate and Disease: The Present Day
In part this is because scientists have discovered wild cacao varietals deep in the Amazonian rainforest that can resist witches’ broom (indeed one, called Scavina-6, was identified as early as 1940s in the Peruvian rainforest). And CRISPR is now also being used to try and avoid some frightening new diseases threatening African and Asian cocoa farmers. At the same time these clones have major issues; for more see here on CCN-51.
Without wishing to sound melodramatic, commodity cacao and mass produced chocolate are an existential threat through their reliance on agricultural monocultures, their use of slash and burn agriculture combined with their requirement for loads of fertilizers, pesticides, etc. We need to learn from the disasters foretold by the Gran Michel, and now Cavendish, banana. We need to promote more cacao varietals and delight in chocolate’s myriad of flavours to protect genetic diversity. And we need to protect the rainforest, not destroy it with slash and burn monocrop agricultural commodity cacao and mass produced chocolate where flavour and taste is all added in the factory.
The end product of this commoditised cacao; mass produced chocolate confectionery; is also causing a whole series of other human diseases ranging from early onset type 2 diabetes, heart and liver issues, obesity, cancers, etc. Pretty packaging, smart marketing, evocative slogans (even those claiming to “eradicate child slavery”) should not divert from the fact that most supermarket chocolate bars are over 50% sugar (including Tony’s). As a flavour enhancer sugar is awesome. But it’s also highly addictive and unhealthy.
So if you want to help eradicate the diseases to (and from) cacao and save our planet please savour craft chocolate.
As travel restrictions disappear and the summer holidays creep closer, can we interest you in some “ChocolaTourism”? Why not combine your next trip with a visit to a craft chocolate maker or even go on a cacao trek in the Amazonian jungle?
Unlike the banter of a barista or the chat of a craft beer maker, it’s rare to meet a craft chocolate maker in person and experience all the work they put into crafting their bars. When we purchase a bar, we can read a bit about the maker and farmer from the packaging. But it’s really not the same as hearing the barista’s enthusiasm, and literally smelling the freshly brewed coffee, in a specialty coffee store. Similarly, we miss those great descriptions in the pub of new craft beers and clinking of glasses.
In the world of craft chocolate, this is starting to change; you can now experience the sights and smells as chocolate is crafted and grown. More and more makers are opening up for visits, and some are even offering museum-like experiences and activities. And farmers and growers are also offering treks and tours.
We’ve started to assemble an atlas of our craft chocolate makers offering visits and tours; see HERE. Please note that it’s a work in progress; if there are other makers or growers or experiences you’d like us to add please let us know! And similarly, if there is other information you’d like, again let us know. Please do note that we are NOT arranging these tours and activities, nor are we selling tickets. Rather we are rather trying to provide a simple facility for craft chocolate lovers to take their appreciation one step further.
If you fancy a weekend away, why not combine this with a trip to the Suffolk seaside and visit Pump Street in Orford (and for a personal suggestion, I heartily recommend staying at The Ship at Dunwich). Or head off to Glasgow to visit Lara and Cam’s newly opened Bare Bones drinking chocolate bar; and stop off and say hi to Rachel McCormack too for a whisky and chocolate pairing.
And if you want to take ‘chocolatourism’ one stage further, why not take a trip to Catalonia and stay in the Roca’s chocolate hotel, dine in their award winning restaurant and visit Jordi and Damien’s chocolate factory.
Learning from Napa Wineries
The wine industry in America long ago discovered the wonders of wine tours with wine tourism in Napa and Sonoma in California second only to Disney World as tourist money makers in California). Realising this, Adam Bridge of Taylor’s Port has created not only ‘port tourism’ in Porto, Portugal, but also now you can visit their chocolate museum and factory (we’re launching Vinte Vinte’s bars next month, and hosting a tasting with Pedro on the 26th in London; stay tuned for updates!).
And if you are in Austria, we strongly recommend a trip to Julia and Josef Zotter’s chocolate experience near Vienna. And if in Taiwan, do visit Fu Wan where you can stay in their hotel, trek in the nearby forests where they harvest some of their cacao and visit their award winning factory.
ChocolaTourism and Cacao Treks
And if you are up for even more of an adventure, why not consider a cocoa field trek to Uganda, Ecuador or the Dominican Republic? Jenny from Conexión still has a few tickets left on her next trip. Zorzal in the Dominican Republic offers the chance to visit their cocoa farms and bird sanctuary. And Jeff (from Moka), along with Jeff Steinberg (founder of Latitude) coordinates some great trips to Uganda and Latitude’s operations.
For those of you who’ve already made other summer plans and can’t wedge in some chocolatourism just now, fear not. We’ve also some great board and bar gifts based on these makers and growers; see HERE and below.
In addition, we are now running a series of monthly in person events and tastings at our London Offices in Charterhouse Square; see HERE for more details.
Next week we’ve a tasting at Chelsea Physic Garden (on the 12th, at their garden),
We’re delighted to be part of Vinte Vinte’s UK launch, with a special tasting at our offices with Pedro, their chief chocolate maker; please purchase tickets HERE,
We’re hosting a hybrid Zoom and in-person ‘talk and tasting’ with Dr Kristy Leissle on the 17th June; please see HERE. Note: you can either attend this tasting in person or via zoom!
We’re celebrating Chocolarder’s 10th birthday with a party on September the 8th; see HERE.
And much more to come!
Hope to see you at an event soon, and happy ChocolaTourism!
As ever, thanks for your support.
P.S. Again, please do note that we aren’t arranging any of these tours or experiences; if you’ve questions we’ve tried to provide contact details for the makers and growers on the website.
How Moulds Enhance the Chocolate Tasting Experience
Choosing a mould is also choosing how the chocolate is going to be experienced. Just like how a wine glass rim’s thickness will affect how the wine is enjoyed (see companies like Riedel who design glasses to enhance specific grape varieties), a chocolate mould has the same status. Opting for a thinner bar, for example Franceschi’s Venezuela 70% shareable pieces, will mean that the melt is quicker and the flavour profile presents itself immediately. On the other hand, chunkier bars, for example Pump Street’s signature thick rectangles, will offer a slower melt, various notes revealing themselves more gradually.
Moulds can implicitly influence the eater to share their chocolate or (understandably) be a little more selfish. Bare Bones’ chocolates, with their neat, dividable squares, invite customers to enjoy the bars’ wonderfully clean snap and share with friends and family. Chocolate Makers’ Tres Hombres mini bar inspires the same generosity on a smaller scale, with their tiny 12g bar being divided into 24 even tinier pieces. Whereas Zotter’s butter caramel bar, a uniform slab of almond praline and luscious caramel wrapped in milk chocolate, feels slightly harder to share.
Sensory science can also be considered when selecting a mould. Various visual features, like shapes and patterns, can evoke olfactory or gustatory responses. For instance, a bar with intense citrus notes or a bright, vibrant profile can be echoed through a sharp, perpendicular design. Whereas a profile with more rounded flavours (think whole milk or potato), could be circular with fluid edges. This reminds us of the cross-modal Bouba/Kiki effect, where people generally describe a shape with rounded edges as “Bouba” and one with spiky edges as “Kiki”, see our article on how this works for vanillafor more. Of course, makers can also twist the rules and design a mould that ‘contradicts’ the bar’s tasting notes; a reminder of the creative freedom moulds give.
Another thing to note is that even pouring the chocolate into the mould is a meticulous process. Smudges or water (melted chocolate’s sworn enemy) on the mould can spoil the chocolate at the last hurdle. Since many of our makers hand pour their bars, the mould’s material is another consideration
How Moulds Tell a Story
Craft chocolate makers have fascinating stories to tell. It is impossible to communicate a brand’s story completely: From the initial idea to the bean selection to the chocolate making process. The bar itself is a great tool to begin this conversation. Nods to a makers’ origin story can be engraved upon the finished product, making the bar not only more unique, but also more meaningful. Dick Taylor’s exquisite bar design (see below) references the fact they are, in their own words, “deeply rooted in a background of woodworking and boat building”. Alternatively, Friis Holm’s precise rectangular bars, with their perfectly uniform squares, feels to us like a salute to Danish minimalism.
There is also something satisfying about a mould that proudly references the maker’s name (many of our makers adopt this approach, including Bonnat, Åkesson’s, Ritual, and Duffy’s to name a few). We think stamping a brand’s name, and therefore identity, into the bar, makes it even more personal.
How Two Makers Chose Their Moulds
We had the pleasure of speaking to New Zealand chocolate maker Karl Hogarth about his wonderful mould design, which he wanted to “show commitment”, “make a statement”, and be “instantly recognisable”; an aim he has, without a doubt, achieved. He told us that he had to make a choice between an easily divisible bar or something more unconventional. In his own words, he decided “to take the risk and do something special and unique”.
At first, they planned on inscribing the initial design (see below) onto the bar, to give a shallower engraved effect. However, one of their designers, Danny, envisioned it as a 3D model, with the waves overlapping each other. After creating a CAD (computer aided design) file and sending this to the Chocolate World in Belgium, the mould came to life.
These 3D waves are not only beautiful, but are also personal to Karl, representing his background as a fisherman, sailor, and surfer. It’s also a nod to cacao’s maritime journey to reach Hogarth’s factory in New Zealand (which is coincidentally 60 metres away from the sea itself). Others have commented that the design resembles artwork associated with the Tangata Whenua (Tarn-a-ta Fen-u-a) or Maori people, another link to Hogarth’s proud heritage.
This design is the perfect example of how deep meaning can be quite literally poured into each bar. We particularly love the bar’s thick border: a fitting frame for a work of art.
If you’ve ever had the pleasure of eating one of Karuna’s award-winning chocolates, you will have been struck by their intricate bar design. We spoke to co-founder Armin about the decisions behind this mould, designed by his younger brother Lorenz. Armin wished to acknowledge cacao’s origin as well as Karuna’s Indian connection.
The result is a bar with stylised fruits and leaves to reference that cocoa pods come from trees, as well as a traditional Indian paisley motif. Armin commented: “we really loved that it linked to our origin. In the sense where it all begun. In India.” We think there is something apt about referencing the very first inspiration for a business within its final product, condensing years of hard work into something physical. Incorporating the cocoa pod’s origin also reflects another long history of hard work, centuries of growing this extraordinary fruit concentrated into a single pattern. Chocolarder adopt a similar approach, engraving a larger cocoa pod on each of their bars to honour the raw material and their commitment to single origin.
Chocolate is the perfect material to mould. With its just-below-body-temperature melting point, it is easily manipulated, taking just about any shape (see here for some stranger examples!). Moulding, as opposed to enrobing where the chocolate is simply draped over a product, gives the maker great artistic freedom. We hope you can now appreciate how our makers have taken advantage of this freedom, crafting not only delicious tasting bars, but works of art.
We have also put together an inexhaustive list highlighting some wonderful bars that use moulds to enhance the tasting experience, whether that be visually or gastronomically. We’ve missed out many fantastic bars and their moulds from this list and will have regular updates on this fascinating subject. Since we’re going to be making this a series (including more discussion on decoration and packaging too), it would also be wonderful to hear about your favourite moulds.
Back in 1841 the Russian chemist Alekasandr Voskresensky discovered an alkaloid in the fruit of Theobroma cacao (aka the cacao/cocoa tree). And he called it ‘theobromine’, reflecting the etymology of “food of the goods” (aka, the cocoa tree; called “Theobroma cacao” by Carl Linnaeus).
This discovery was part of a line of remarkable alkaloid discoveries starting with morphine (1804) that went on to include a range of other interesting stimulants and drugs such as caffeine (1820), nicotine (1828), and cocaine (1860).
Theobromine is one of the reasons why chocolate is so delightful and so stimulating. But despite being remarkably similar in composition to caffeine (see image the above), theobromine’s ‘stimulation’ is quite different. Unlike other alkaloids, theobromine is not addictive, you won’t get withdrawal symptoms from missing your daily fix but at the same time, it does wonders for your heart, blood pressure and general mood.
How do Theobromine and Caffeine Differ?
Theobromine is found in a number of plants and fruits; most notably in cocoa and chocolate, and also in tea (Camellia sinensis), carob, guarana, and yerba mate.
Caffeine is also found in a number of plants and fruits; in particular coffee, and also trace elements of caffeine are in cocoa and chocolate.
Chemically these two alkaloids are remarkably similar (see the above image). Theobromine is technically C7H8N4O2. And caffeine is C8H10N4O2.
Caffeine contains one more ‘methyl group’ than theobromine. And this extra methyl group is hugely significant.
How do Theobromine and Caffeine Work?
Caffeine, thanks to its third methyl group, can cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to adenosine receptors. Caffeine blocks these adenosine receptors, stopping one feeling drowsy and boosting adrenaline. This is why caffeine “peps” one up; making one more alert and perkier (hence why it’s great for sports like cycling). It can also make you jittery as it promotes an adrenaline surge, and if you consume a reasonable amount regularly you may suffer withdrawal symptoms if you stop drinking coffee/taking caffeine.
As theobromine is absorbed in our bodies it stimulates the release of nitric oxide, and these in turn reduce enzymes in the blood that constrict our blood vessels. And as a consequence, theobromine causes our blood pressure to decline (note: This may also be due to phosphoesterase inhibition).
At the same time, theobromine interacts with enzymes in our heart and lungs promoting vasodilation and bronchodilation. And this is one reason why dark chocolate is often recommended to help asthmatics breathe more easily.
Theobromine (and caffeine) are also diuretics (or, more graphically; they encourage you to pee). Indeed back in the early 1900s chocolate was regularly prescribed as a diuretic and way to treat edemas (i.e. fluid build ups in the legs, hands, etc.).
Note: Many of the benefits that you get from theobromine you also get from caffeine as the body breaks down caffeine into theobromine. But given that only 10-15% of caffeine is converted to theobromine (the majority is converted into paraxanthine as well as theophylline), the magical impact of chocolate and cocoa as vasodilator, diuretic, etc. are a bit less.
Is Theobromine Poisonous?
At very high doses, theobromine has been blamed for sweating, trembling and severe headaches in some cases. But it’s very hard to find large studies on this, and even anecdotal evidence here seems very rare.
However, there are some suggestions that for some (unlucky) people, over indulging in chocolate in massive binges may also cause heartburn as theobromine causes the oesophageal sphincter to relax and so some stomach acids go “the wrong way” (so you’ll need some antacids etc.).
More importantly for dogs (and cats), theobromine is far more dangerous because they metabolize it far slower than humans (humans metabolize theobromine over 5-8 hours versus three to five times this for dogs). So if you do have pets (especially dogs as they, unlike cats, have an affinity for sugar and sweetness), keep the chocolate out of the way.
Note: If you are one of those people who believes that dark chocolate etc. causes you headaches, it may well be that you are allergic to PEA (another chemical in cocoa/chocolate) rather than theobromine.
How can I access some these wonderful benefits from theobromine?
As you try the recommendations below, remember that there are also a host of other great benefits from savouring craft chocolate; everything from satisfying the second stomach so you’ll gorge less, to accessing valuable minerals like magnesium, zinc, selenium etc., whilst also releasing all sorts of wonders like serotonin, phenylethylamine, etc., which make you feel GREAT! And it’s far better for the farmers and planet.
Delight and relax without any jitteriness. Thank you THEOBROMINE: Food, and alkaloid, of the gods.
P.S. If you missed our discussion of caffeine and theobromine (and much more) at our Square Mile coffee and chocolate pairing last weekend, fear not! There are still some tasting packs and a recording will available for you to follow along on your own time.
P.P.S. As ever a huge thanks to Peter Goodfellow for correcting many of the earlier errors in this email/blog. Any errors remain mine!
So the ‘smart Alec’ answer here is spelling. ‘Cacao’ has two As, one O and two Cs. ‘Cocoa’ has one A, two Os and two Cs.
However, all sorts of claims are made for the benefits of the likes of “raw cacao nibs”, “alkalinised pure cocoa powder”, etc. Almost all these claims are hogwash. And some are downright misleading.
And then there are a bunch of definitions in dictionaries, government departments, medical sites, etc., which are at best amusing and invariably confused and confusing.
Having said this, there are a couple of best practises for using the terms cacao and cocoa. And as long as these aren’t bowdlerised by nonsense terms like ‘raw’, the way we use the terms helps us think more about the magic of chocolate and that it’s so much more than a commodity or mechanic for half-baked health claims.
Bottom line: Think of “cacao” as to what the farmer does with the fruit of Theobroma cacao. Cocoa is what makers do with cocoa (or cacao) beans.
Cacao is what comes from Theobroma cacao (aka, the tree whose fruit gives us chocolate)
Most craft chocolate makers and “cacao sourcerers” (yes there really is such a term; it refers to people who source the cocoa beans used to make chocolate), use “cacao” to refer to the fruit of Theobroma cacao that is handled on the cocoa farm, i.e. the pods, the pulp inside the pods, the seeds, and the then fermented and dried ‘beans’.
But you can also refer to cocoa pods, cocoa seeds, cocoa pulp, fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, etc.
It really doesn’t matter too much. Both are correct.
Cocoa is what chocolate makers do with fermented cacao (or cocoa) beans
Many of us use the term ‘cocoa’ to refer to ‘hot cocoa’ (i.e. the drink) or ‘cocoa powder’.
These terms started to be extensively used in the early 19th century following the invention of the cocoa press (by father and son, the Van Houtens). And to demarcate the massive innovations following on from this invention (coupled with a few by Fry, Nestlé, Lindt, and Daniel Peter), the idea of makers processing the fruit of the cacao tree into cocoa, is a useful historical reminder.
Fairly soon after working out the mechanics of the cocoa press, the Dutch also realised that if you ‘washed’ the remaining cocoa mass in an alkaline solution you could remove some of its bitterness, lighten and redden its colour, whilst also improving its solubility in water, milk etc. Smart marketing was deployed for this alkalinised or ‘Dutched’ cocoa powder such that many consumers perceive Dutched or alkalised cocoa powder to be nutritionally superior; but in fact, natural cocoa powder retains far more of the nutritionally valuable minerals like magnesium, potassium, iron, etc. In the US, food labelling requires that manufacturers say whether cocoa powder is alkalinised. But here in Europe, and the UK, this isn’t a requirement (you can read more on the deficiencies of European labelling regulations and other issues on chocolate labels). And in Europe (and the US), most cocoa powder is alkalinised. So if you want some cocoa powder to make a great hot chocolate and/or to cook with, please can we recommend our Kokoa Kamili cocoa powder (and if you are near Nkora speciality coffee, check out their hot chocolate made with this).
In parallel, this extracted cocoa butter also became a key ingredient for cosmetics. Cocoa butter is an amazing butter in a multitude of ways. It nourishes and moisturises. It doesn’t go rancid or ‘off’ for a VERY long time. And it can be crafted into a stable solid at room temperature which then can melt on contact with bits of the human body like lips (lipsticks), cheeks (blushes), arms and legs (moisturisers), etc. And so popular is cocoa butter for these purposes that cocoa butter is now far higher priced than cocoa mass (which is used to make confectionary, ice cream, etc.).
Another use of the spare cocoa butter also (apocryphally at least) gave rise the transformation of chocolate from being consumed as a drink to being eaten in the form of stable, solid bar. Back in 1847, Joseph Fry had his eureka moment when he realised that he could add back cocoa butter to the cocoa mass used to create drinking chocolate to create the first stoneground chocolate bar (try a Taza bar to explore the very different textures of these stone ground bars).
Over the next fifty years the Swiss then fine tuned the idea of the chocolate bar into smooth and moreish chocolate bars thanks to Rodolphe Lindt (conching), Jean Tobler (tempering), Daniel Peter and Henri Nestlé (milk chocolate); learn about these developments at a tasting.
At the same time, advertising and tradingstandards here in the UK can be partially traced back to “hot cocoa”. Cadbury are, again, coming in for criticism of their sourcing with child labour etc. But they were (and arguably still are) amazing marketers. And amongst their marketing genius was their use of the advertising for their Dutched cocoa essence drinking powder in the 1860s as “Absolutely Pure. Therefore Best”, alongside medical testimonials, which helped shape the idea of which gave rise to the modern day trading and advertising standards authorities.
What about raw caca nibs, raw cacao, etc.?
Cocoa (or cacao) nibs are wonderful to nibble on, add to porridge and smoothies, use for cooking (both sweet and savoury), etc. Try them from our shop.
And they are also very nutritious. And they can be packed with flavour. They also are less astringent to consume than 100% chocolate bars; so many chocolate connoisseurs worried about additives and sugar will opt for a handful of nibs rather than a few squares of 100% chocolate. To somewhat oversimplify, this is technically because the finer particles of the ground cocoa nibs in your smooth 100% chocolate bar can deliver the tannins in your chocolate faster and more effectively to dry out the proteins in your saliva which is what creates that puckering sensation of astringency.
But these nibs aren’t ‘raw’. Please read our longer rant on “raw”. But raw cocoa (or cacao) nibs are nonsense (as are raw bars). All cocoa nibs are made with fermented beans, not unfermented cocoa seeds. And as cocoa beans can’t germinate, they shouldn’t be called ‘raw’, at best raw should be confined to cocoa seeds. And these aren’t very pleasant to eat (they are super bitter and astringent). And fermentation and drying of cocoa goes above 42 degrees which effectively kyboshed another often quoted characteristic of raw foods; i.e. they’ve not been cooked or heated above human body temperature.
Almost all cocoa nibs, and ALL the cocoa nibs I’ve ever seen for sale direct to consumers, are also roasted. This roasting is partly to impart flavour; just as roasting coffee beans differently imparts different flavours, the Maillard reaction does the same for chocolate. Roasting is also used to kill off any bugs and nasties in the chocolate (cocoa beans are a notorious source of anthrax). And almost all raw chocolate is ‘flash roasted’. This is true of many of the ‘raw’ bars we sell (e.g. Minka) where these bars are roasted similarly to the “virgin roast” of Conexión’s bars, i.e. a flash roast for 1-2 minutes rather than 18-25. We do have a few exceptions, e.g. Raaka and Forever Cacao, who don’t roast their beans (and they are very careful to test all their beans for any nasties). But these makers are careful not to confuse the loose definition of raw with their ‘unroasted approach.
And on a final note: Cocoa nibs are super healthy and nutritious. But the extra claims that go along with raw cocoa nibs are scientifically unfounded. For example, the oft quoted claim that these raw cocoa nibs are higher in anti-oxidants because of their ORAC score is technical tosh. And the same is true for raw chocolate bars’ health claims. Indeed many of these supposedly super healthy raw chocolate bars are packed with sugar and other ultra processed additives, so you’d be FAR, FAR better off with a craft chocolate bar that has ‘cleaner’ ingredients, tastes far better and is far better for the farmers and the planet.
So bottom line: If you do want to draw a sensible line between ‘cacao’ and ‘cocoa’, this processing by makers is as good as any line to draw. But don’t fall for the marketing nonsense about raw, alkalinisation, etc. Having finished this rant, I’d love to ask you readers with an interest in chocolate a couple of questions:
Why do so many people continue to believe so much tosh about chocolate?
What do we have to do to get more common sense into the industry about not just misleading health claims but also disingenuous sourcing claims (such as Cadbury’s Cocoa Trace programme)?
I’d love your thoughts here (please comment on the blog here, or send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org). And we’ll select a couple of the best answers to feature on the blog, and send you some fine cocoa (or cacao) nibs from Menakao.
Thanks as ever for your support, and happy Easter, easy fasting for Ramadan, and chag Pesach sameach for Passover!
In the last week a UK TV series, Channel 4’s ‘Dispatches’, broadcast a damning investigation into Cadbury’s use of child labour in sourcing cocoa from Ghana. It’s very shocking and disturbing. Kids who aren’t even ten years old, wearing just flip flops and t-shirts in sweltering heat are harvesting cocoa with machetes longer than their arms instead of going to school. The whole programme can be found HERE. It’s only 30 minutes, and even though it’s gruesome watching it’s still worth it; hopefully it’ll persuade you to upgrade to craft chocolate for your bars and eggs.
Sadly this isn’t new news. Back in the 1990s the BBC broke the story of child slave labour in West African Cocoa. And despite a tonne of follow up TV programmes, media uproar, court cases, the US Congress’ attempt to pass Harkin Engel, and lots of consumer affront, not a lot has changed. Cadbury continues to sell 300 million plus Creme Eggs each year.
Indeed, ever since Cadbury has been sourcing cocoa from West Africa back in the 1880s, slave labour and other abuses on cocoa farms have been prevalent. Over a 100 years ago in 1908 Cadbury suffered an incredibly embarrassing court case versus The Standard (newspaper). But despite this and a massive consumer boycott in the 1920s, it seems that nothing really has changed in the world of commodity chocolate.
So how to fix this. How do we ensure that cocoa farmers are paid enough to live on?
The short answer is to treasure chocolate for its amazing variety of flavours, textures and tastes, and pay the farmers for this. We need to stop cocoa being treated as a ‘commodity ingredient’. We need to switch to craft chocolate that not only tastes better, but is also far better for you, the farmers, and the environment.
Economics suggests that as demand increases, prices should rise. So given that demand for chocolate/cocoa has been steadily increasing, why are cocoa prices remaining so low and why are farmers being paid so badly?
Economics also has a concept called monopsony; basically a monopoly where the buyers have the power, effectively dictating prices. This is the position of almost all cocoa grown and purchased in West Africa (which accounts for over two thirds of the world’s production, with Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana by far the largest exporters).
There are a dozen ‘big chocolate’ companies who purchase over 80% of all the commodity cocoa beans grown in West Africa. And as these companies want to make as much money for their shareholders as possible, they seek to pay as little as they can for cocoa (and all the other ingredients) that go into chocolate bars and confectionery. And as part of this cocoa has been commoditized so that all cocoa is interchangeable and all that matters is price.
West Africa has literally millions of small farmers, each with 1-2 hectares, growing 50-200 bags of cocoa a year. These farmers struggle to make enough money. Over 90% of Cocoa Farmers in the Côte d’Ivoire are paid less than half what the World Bank believes is a ‘living income’; to put this into context, men take home $0.78 (US) per day, and women 25¢; and the living income they need is over $2.50 per day. So these farmers are desperate for more income, and cocoa is one of the few cash crops they can grow, so they do everything they can to grow more cocoa, including cutting down the few remaining rainforests to plant more cocoa (this is often cited as one of the major causes of the appalling deforestation, and desertification, in West Africa).
And so even though demand for cocoa is growing, the desperation of the farmers combined with their weak bargaining position and the ability to source more commodity cocoa (including some that is smuggled from neighbouring countries) means that the prices paid for commodity cocoa barely generates enough income for many farmers to survive. And as the C4 Dispatches programme graphically shows, these farmers not only can’t afford to pay to send their children to school, but they are so desperate that they have to put their children to work in harvesting cocoa.
Note: This is NOT a criticism of the Ghanaian government; they don’t want their children to have to work in unsafe conditions and not go to school. They do have laws against this. But they also know that over 90% of their cocoa farmers don’t make the living income benchmark.
So why can’t certification solve this problem?
For the last few decades, some amazing work has been done to help consumers access ‘ethical’ and ‘environmental’ brands where a price premium is paid to the farmers. In many crops it’s worked wonders; for example, Fair Trade bananas.
In the world of craft chocolate, Zotter pioneered organic and fairly traded chocolate in Austria. And here in the UK, even though it’s more ‘mass produced’ than ‘craft’ the work that Divine has done with Fair Trade chocolate and Kuapa Kokoo in Ghana is inspiring.
But unfortunately Fair Trade, along with other certifications and labels, just isn’t enough to break the poverty loop of commodity chocolate. Unlike, for example, speciality coffee, these certification initiatives have failed to break through and change consumer’s attitudes to paying enough for chocolate such that this materially changes the livelihoods of cocoa farmers.
At the risk of vastly over simplifying, here are some of the reasons why ‘certification’ isn’t a panacea in cocoa and chocolate (note: This is NOT to say that choosing a Fair Trade or organic supermarket bar is no different from buying another mass produced bar; rather it’s arguing to do more).
Certification is REALLY hard, expensive and even dangerous to do for cocoa. And when it comes to a commodity crop (aka hard to trace and distinguish), it’s hard to enforce. So it’s perhaps not that surprising that C4’s Dispatches found so many abuses. At the same time it’s a credit to Ghana that Channel 4’s Dispatches were able to make the programme that they did… there are many other places in West Africa where making this programme would have been a lot less safe, and certification even trickier to get right.
A lot of certification and labelling is, to put it mildly, ‘hogwash‘ or at best ‘greenwash‘.
Other certifications are really confusing; for example, mass balance fair trade upsets many consumers when they realise that the “fair trade” bar they’ve just bought may well have no fair trade beans in them (see HERE for more).
And there are now so many company labels (like Cadbury’s ‘Cocoa Life’) that it’s impossible for most consumers to keep track and know what really is what.
Consumers just won’t pay enough. Working out how much of a ‘premium’ consumers will pay for ‘Fair Trade’ is notoriously difficult; it varies by product type and also consumer. But even for Fair Trade coffee (one of the highest premiums with the highest acceptance rates), its only about 20%. And whilst this premium is welcome news for any farmer, in the case of a male cocoa farmer earning less than 85¢ a day (or 25¢ a day for a female cocoa farmer), this still means they are less than halfway to securing a minimal living income for West Africa.
Ethical and environmental certifications don’t guarantee quality. Fair trade and organic are about how something is grown and harvested. They aren’t about ‘taste and flavour’. By comparison, ‘specialty coffee’ is in part defined by measuring the quality of the beans on the coffee farm (which may also be organic, fair trade, etc.). But in cocoa it’s very different; even “fine” cocoa is allowed to have up to 3% defects (e.g., mould, under fermentation, etc.) and it’s still certified organic, Fair Trade, etc. (hat yip to Martin Christy here).
Bottom line: These certifications persist in treating cocoa and chocolate like a commodity ingredient, where price and volume are all important and flavour can be synthesised with additives in the factory. And in the case where you’ve few buyers but lots of desperate farmers, this inevitably leads to the awful situation shown in the Cadbury exposé.
Why craft chocolate is the way forward:
As in specialty coffee, artisan cheese, craft beer, premium olive oils, malt whiskies, craft gins, fine wines, and almost every other food and drink, consumers will pay more if a product tastes better (and has more kudos and coolness). And these price premiums are FAR higher than any Fair Trade premium.
Craft chocolate clearly has oodles more flavour complexity, length and depth than can be found in mass produced chocolate which relies on additives, fortifiers and, above all, sugar. (And we think it’s a lot cooler, and far more impressive to serve at your next dinner party).
And craft chocolate makers know that they have to pay the farmers more for the extra work involved in planting, growing, harvesting, fermenting, drying and transporting these speciality beans. The premium paid by craft chocolate, and its long term contracts, really does break through; the premium craft chocolate makers pay for their beans is anywhere from two to over ten times the commodity cocoa prices, and way more than even the highest fair trade premiums.
However, even though these craft chocolate bars cost less than a round of beers in a pub, many consumers recoil at the thought of a £4, £5 or £6 bar of chocolate (or £8-10 Easter egg). And whereas specialty coffee now accounts for over 20% of all coffee spend in the UK, craft chocolate isn’t even 0.02% of the £5b plus spent on chocolate in the UK each year.
In part this is because mass produced chocolate has persuaded consumers that they shouldn’t expect to pay more than £1 for their ‘sugar rush’ of a chocolate bar. And this perpetuates the vicious cycle of commodity cocoa. The only way that a bar of chocolate can cost £1 is, as the Dispatches programme shows, for the ingredients to cost less than 11p (see minute 8). And this is only achievable through ‘commodity cocoa’; paying less than a living income to the cocoa farmers, and by using LOTS of even cheaper sugar (which is also highly addictive).
It’s not easy to break this ingrained habit. Humans are pre-programmed to like sugar, and chocolate is an amazing vector for “sweet delight”. At the same time, humans are unique in delighting in savouring flavour; and craft chocolate has more flavours than just about anything.
So we really believe that if you can break the sugar habit and upgrade to craft chocolate you can help break the vicious cycle of poverty, child labour and deforestation that are all inherent in commodity cocoa and mass produced chocolate.
We need to stop treating chocolate as a commodity where price is all important, where the primary ingredient of a chocolate bar is sugar, and where a mass produced bar’s taste and flavours are created through cheap additives, enhancers, sweeteners and sugar.
And we need to start to read the label. We need to check the ingredients on the reverse of the pack. We need to look for where your bar (and Easter egg) is really made (as opposed to processed and assembled). And we need to look on the label for where your beans really come from (i.e. the farm and co-op, not just the “single origin” country, occasionally listed on the front).
And we need to avoid being distracted, and misled, by a bunch of great sounding, but effectively meaningless, phrases like “Cocoa Life”, “slavery-free”, “ethically sourced” etc. We have to move beyond greenwashing environmental stickers. These distract from the real issue.
So this Easter, please, please avoid ‘commodity chocolate’ and all the tragedies for the farmers, planet and ourselves Please SEE HERE, and please remember to order before next Wednesday the 13th, mid-day, for UK deliveries.
Thanks as ever for your support. It really does make a difference!
i) This post is NOT arguing for a boycott of West African chocolate. Ghana, The Ivory Coast, Cameroon, etc. aren’t to blame for the way that ‘big chocolate’ has commoditised cocoa. Nor is it a criticism of Fair Trade. Rather, it’s a plea to upgrade to craft chocolate, and savour the flavour of great beans, and pay a little more to reward farmers for work.
ii) Whenever child slave labour is discussed, we inevitably get asked about Tony’s Chocolonely. Tony’s is a marketing machine, and has done an amazing job of (re)alerting the world to the problems of child labour in cocoa. But we side with Anne Riggs here who has evicted them from her ‘Slave Free Chocolate‘ organisation. Check the Tony’s labels: The primary ingredient is sugar. And try figuring out where their beans really come from, and how, and where, their chocolate is processed. For our ‘two cents’ please, SEE HERE.
So, unlike the conundrum of which came first in “the chicken or the egg”, with chocolate Easter eggs, the answer seems clear; it was the egg.
Humans have been decorating eggs for millennia (apparently over sixty of them, with evidence of ostrich egg carvings found over 60,000 years ago in South Africa).
By comparison, we can track the drinking of chocolate back to around 3,500BC. And wide scale gifting of chocolate eggs at Easter only really started in the 19th century and then took off in the later 20th century thanks to some smart packaging innovations.
Today, Easter is second only to Christmas as a time for gifting chocolate (and please can we encourage you to check out our range of Easter eggs, bunnies, chicks and more). And at the same time factors that made chocolate Easter eggs ‘hatch’ offer a great history of chocolate, lent, fasting and packaging innovations.
The History of Lent and Eggs
Eggs featured in many religions’ celebrations of Spring; some of which still continue. For example, the Zoroastrians have been painting and gifting eggs at their spring holiday of Nowruz for over 7,000 years. And the ancient Egyptian spring festival of Sham el Nessi, which is still held today as a non-religious holiday, involved hard boiled coloured eggs being eaten at picnics. Eggs also play a key role in the Chinese creation myth of Pangu, and this theme of eggs involved in the world’s creation stretches from Finland (see the Kalevala; the Finnish national epic) to Fiji, Hawaii and indeed pretty much everywhere.
The early church took a different tack; celebrating eggs but also abstaining from them in the run up to Easter. One upshot of this is Shrove Tuesday (aka pancake day) where as many eggs as possible can be turned into pancakes before the 40 days of Lent (and please see Dormouse’s wonderful pancake bar). France has a slightly different tradition; Mardi Gras, which occurs on the same day as Shrove Tuesday, i.e. the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday. Mardi Gras translates literally as “Fat Tuesday”; and is so named as an encouragement to eat as many as eggs, cheese, dairy, etc. as you can before Lent starts. Easter egg rolling, egg races, etc. may well be another result (after all chickens don’t stop laying eggs during Lent, so something has to be done with them).
And these traditions were then combined with other customs around the Easter hare, which then became the Easter bunny (we’ve written about this before) to end up with breaking the fast with chocolate Easter eggs.
The History of Chocolate and Fasting
Fasting, and not just at Easter, also played a key role in the spread of chocolate over Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Catholics didn’t just fast at Lent, they also fasted on many Saints’ Days and also on Fridays and Wednesdays (hence ‘fish on Fridays’). And this meant that they had to abstain from all animal products (milk, cheese, meat, etc.), and only have a meal 1-2 times a day (note: Henry VIII in the UK as part of the English Reformation pared back the demands of fasting to allow consumption of chicken, and this was seen as a major concession; but eggs remained off the Lenten menu).
The Jesuits saw this as a great opportunity to promote nutritious, and very filling, drinking chocolate that they were importing from the “New World”. They positioned their drinking chocolate as a delicious means to stave off pangs of hunger on any fast day. This campaign met with significant push back from other religious orders, especially the Dominicans, who argued that anything that tasted as good as chocolate, and was so filling, was missing the point of abstaining and fasting. However the Jesuits persevered, and eventually succeeded in persuading various Popes, starting with Gregory XIII and culminating in Alexander VII, to back their argument that “Liquidum non frangit jejunum (i.e. liquids do not break the fast)”. And the rest is history: Europe started to drink chocolate.
There are various claims floating around for the first chocolate Easter egg, ranging from the court of Louis XIV to an Italian, known as “the widow Giambone”, who had the idea of filling empty eggshells with melted chocolate and selling them in her shop in 1725.
However, the effort involved in hand crafting these eggs, pouring them into hollowed out egg shells, etc. was too great for these initiatives to be anything more than a court occasional treat.
It took another century for makers, starting with Joseph Fry, to work out how to make chocolate Easter eggs ‘at scale’. Fry’s back in 1847 had already worked out how to make the world’s first commercial chocolate bars by “folding back” the cocoa butter produced by the Van Houten’s cocoa press into their cocoa grinders and making stable, solid bars. And they used this insight to mould chocolate Easter eggs, launching them in 1873 (Cadbury followed a couple of years later).
These eggs were filled with all sorts of other confectionery and they sold well. However they suffered from the perennial problem of eggs as a whole. They are fragile. They broke all too easily.
Chicken (and other non chocolate) eggs until the twentieth century were wrapped in straw and transported by basket, boxes, etc. But they often broke in transit. However in 1911, a Canadian newspaper editor Joseph Coyle, seeking to end a bust up over eggs breaking in transport, invented the first egg carton (note: Liverpudlians sometimes argue that a citizen of theirs; Thomas Peter Bethell; had invented something similar in 1906, but this design was more a series of dividers so Coyle is generally credited as the father of the modern egg box).
Chocolate Easter egg packaging had to wait another few decades for its ‘eureka moment’. In the early 1950s, William T. Horry, a packaging designer, realised that he could adapt a carton he was using to transport electric light bulbs to package Easter eggs. Cadbury seized upon this idea, using it first on their Roses Easter Eggs as it offered greater protection and also windows that could show the egg inside the box.
In other chocolate related news, the UK media has been avidly following ‘William and Kate’ as, to quote the BBC, they got “stuck in” at a cocoa farm in Belize. In addition to showing off their dancing skills (as a local festival organiser noted: “They were shaking their waists like nobody’s business“) and asking if the farm was looking for any “apprentices”, the royal couple also opened their own cocoa pods and were suitably amazed at how these bitter seeds were fermented, dried, roasted and ground to make chocolate; with William apparently saying: “That’s not what I expected at all”.
There was also a hint of the complexities and difficulties facing cocoa farmers in Belize as the royal party was at the last moment diverted from one farm to another one. This story, like the real story of cocoa and Belize, has received less attention. So we thought we’d do a quick dive into cocoa and chocolate in Belize and warn you that just because a brand continues to uses the name ‘Maya Gold’ doesn’t mean that Green & Black’s (part of Cadbury/Mondelēz) are sourcing beans from Belize.
Belize: A Simplified History
Sandwiched between Mexico, Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea, Belize is blessed with amazing beaches, extraordinary pyramids, jaguars and grows some of the world’s finest cocoa. It is also the only English speaking country in Latin America, and achieved independence from the UK in 1981 (prior to this it was known as British Honduras). Its amazing ruins testify to an extraordinary rich civilization from 2000BC to 900AD about whom we know remarkably little. We do know that they were extremely partial to chocolate, valuing cocoa “more highly than gold”. And the decline of Mayan civilization provides a grim case study of the perils of climate change with drought, exacerbated by deforestation, increasingly blamed for their civilisation’s collapse in the 10th century.
Following the conquest of the ‘New World’ by the Spanish conquistadors, a range of British privateers (aka pirates) used Belize to raid the Spanish treasures fleets during the 17th and 18th centuries. Thereafter the Garifuna (descendants of enslaved peoples from the Caribbean) and German Mennonites also colonized Belize (and the latter also appear to have cultivated and harvested cocoa in the late 19th century).
Belize: A Tumultuous Chocolate Trail
As can be gleaned from the many glyphs and carvings on Mayan temples and pottery, the Mayans attached great importance to cocoa, and extensively farmed and consumed it. In the post-Columbus period, Belize was largely ignored, and escaped the deprivations that cocoa farmers suffered in Brazil, Ecuador etc. The rich Mayan traditions of cocoa cultivation and consumption almost disappeared. And even today Belize remains a very small grower of cocoa (exporting around 150 metric tonnes per annum, in comparison to the 2.1 million metric tonnes from Cote D’Ivoire or 800k metric tonnes from Ghana).
In the second half of the 20th century this started to change. Firstly, in 1960s the British Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC) planted 300 acres of cacao to see what “could be done”. And then in the 1980s the US based Hershey Company, supported by various US development agencies, made major investments in cocoa, planting many new trees and setting up various fermentation and drying centres. However, during the late 1980s the global price of commodity cocoa fell by over 70%. Hershey’s could buy commodity cocoa cheaper elsewhere. And so pretty much overnight Hershey’s pulled out of Belize. Many farmers were bankrupted. Cocoa trees were abandoned, or even worse, ripped out and replaced by orange trees.
Fast forward another decade to the 1990s and Craig Sams, founder of Green & Black’s, came across Belize when his initial choice to source cocoa (Togo) underwent a military coup. Craig’s story of Green and Black’s ‘Maya Gold’ bar is full of adventure, culminating in the launch of ‘Maya Gold’, Green and Black’s first Fair Trade and organic bar. However, sadly, following Green and Black’s takeover first by Cadbury and then by Mondelēz, the farmers in Belize were again left by the wayside by ‘big chocolate’. Green and Black’s still sell a bar called Maya Mountain, but if you carefully read the label, and the Green and Black’s official website, you’ll realise that their Mayan Gold bar is merely made to a “traditional Belize recipe”, and not made with cocoa from Belize. Belize’s cocoa farmers were again abandoned.
Fortunately, craft chocolate; spearheaded by Emily Stone of Uncommon Cacao, Alex Whitmore of Taza and Patrick Walter from Choco del Sol; stepped in, with the establishment of Maya Mountain Cacao in 2011. Today, Maya Mountain’s cacao wins awards galore, yielding flavours as varied as honey, pineapple, fudge and nuts. And the story also offers encouragement in long running disputes between neighbours Guatemala and Belize, as Uncommon Cacao are working with the same Mayan Communities (the Q’echi’ and Mopan) on both sides of the border to make their chocolate available.
So hopefully William and Kate will follow their enthusiasm for Belize cocoa by trying some chocolate bars that are made with Belize’s cocoa; not just called “Mayan Gold”. And we’d recommend any of the wonderful craft chocolate bars from makers including Karuna, Tosier, Standout, Castronovo, Georgia Ramon, Boho, Dick Taylor, Dandelion, Ritual, Chocolate Tree and Zotter. These are crafted with beans from Belize; they are more than a label and an assertion that the flavours are based on an ancient Mayan recipe. And they taste better, are better for you, are far better for the farmers, and can help prevent deforestation and environmental destruction.
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